GLOSSARY

4

4K
4K (or UHD1) stands for the approximately 4,000 pixels of horizontal resolution offered by this image-capture format. Regular ‘full HD’ offers approximately 2,000 (and is now sometimes referred to as 2K) – meaning that 4K images are in principle four times sharper than today’s top standard.

8

8K
8K (or UHD2) stands for the approximately 8,000 pixels of horizontal resolution offered by this image-capture format. No overall 8K standards have been defined so far as the technology is still developing.

A

Accreditation
Accreditation or accreditation badge is the work Access Device (AD) providing right of entry to a venue or IBC and various zones within a specified location. See also Supplementary Access Device (SAD).
AD
Access Device (normally referring to accreditation).
Additional Feeds
The digital video signals other than the Basic International Feed/Extended Stadium Feed and the Multi-Feeds which are produced by the Host Broadcaster (for example, the Clips Compilation Channel).
AFC
Asian Football Confederation, based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
AHU
Air Handler Units.
Analogue
A continuously variable signal, circuit or device.
Announce Platform
Bookable position available to MRLs for stand-ups. Generally located in an upper deck of the stadium with a background view of the venue.
Assistant Producer
The Assistant Producer oversees the needs of the multilateral production teams, liaising with the FIFA Media Officer (FMO), the technical team and the production team – for example during flash interviews.
Associated Services
Bookable services or facilities ‘associated’ with the match, including pre- and post-unilateral transmissions, commentary positions, announce positions or flash interview positions, used just prior to, during, or directly after a match.
Audio Server
A bookable off-site access service for radio broadcasters offering broadcast quality audio tracks of interviews and Press Conferences of every team in the tournament.

B

BDP
Broadcast Domestic Power.
Beauty Shot Camera
A fixed camera positioned to shoot wide-angle ‘beauty’ shots. Installed in most cases on or under the stadium roof.
Bib
A Supplementary Access Device (SAD) in the form of a vest worn in access-restricted areas such as on- field positions (worn by cameramen and on-field ENG crews). See also Supplementary Access Device (SAD).
BIF
Basic International Feed. See also Extended Stadium Feed (ESF).
BIM
Two possible meanings, depending on context: 1. FIFA Broadcast Information Meeting. 2. Broadcast Information Manager. Each Venue BIO is run by a BIM.
BIO
Broadcast Information Office. This office is the central information point for MRLs at each venue and at the IBC.
BIP
Broadcast Information Platform. The BIP is a dedicated section of the FIFA TV Extranet hosting all broadcast-related content which will be activated during event-time.
BLO
Broadcast Liaison Officer. BLOs provide assistance to MRLs at the venues during each match. Responsibilities include the coordination of pre- and post-unilaterals, and generally assisting commentators and unilateral ENG camera crews. They are part of the Broadcast Information Office team.
BOF
Booking Order Form. Broadcasters express their requests for unilateral services described in the Catalogue of Services (COS) using specific forms known as BOFs. These forms are grouped in several batches corresponding to the different booking deadlines set for the event.
Bookable Facilities
Technical or production services, facilities or equipment available to MRLs on a permanent or temporary basis.
Broadcast Compound
The exterior area at the venue designated for the parking of mobile technical and production trucks, office trailers and other vehicles.
BSS
Booking Software System. Dedicated software developed by HBS for the management of booking operations.
BTP
Broadcast Technical Power.
BVM
Broadcast Venue Manager. Oversees all broadcast- related matters at the venues for which s/he is responsible, including all multilateral and unilateral requirements in accordance with the booking requests HBS receives prior to the event.

C

CAF
Confédération Africaine de Football, based in Cairo, Egypt.
CATV
Community Antenna Television. Cable distribution of TV channels, e.g. within the IBC and the stadiums.
CCR
Commentary Control Room. Designated area for the control of commentary operations at a stadium. It is located as close as possible to the commentary position area. The CCR is the audio circuit handover point between HBS and telecommunications.
CCU
Commentary Control Unit. CCUs are located in the Commentary Control Room (CCR). Every Commentary Unit (CU) is linked by cable to a CCU. Each CCU controls ten CUs. All audio signals to and from commentators are controlled by the CCU.
CET
Central European Time.
CIF
Clean International Feed.
CIR
Cable Interconnection Room.
CIS
Commentary Information System. TV channels delivering competition information and statistics. Sometimes interactive version, PC-based.
Clips Compilation Channel(s)
Channels which give MRLs access to angles which are not part of the main match feed (BIF/ESF); these are available in near real-time.
CMS
Commentator Monitoring System. CATV distribution in commentary positions, including TV feeds and CIS.
Coach On Arrival
Brief interviews of coaches or assistants conducted at the time of the team bus arrival at the stadium.
Codec
Signal adapter used to code/decode analogue TV and radio signals into data.
ComCam
A small camera that provides a shot of the commentators. This camera is controlled (tilt, pan, focus and zoom) from the commentary position, or remotely from a unilateral OB van.
Commentary Circuit
Audio circuit for commentary going from the commentary position to the IBC or the destination of the MRLs.
Commentary Position
A seated position at the venue from where a commentator narrates the event. The equipment of the position varies according to the event. In general, it is equipped with chairs, two TV sets showing the International Signal and match statistics (CIS), and a Commentary Unit with headsets.
Commentator
Radio or TV sports announcer narrating the event.
Compound
See Broadcast Compound.
CONCACAF
Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football, based in New York, USA.
Confederations
The six continental confederations under the patronage of FIFA, the World Football Governor. Each confederation has responsibility for a geographic area, such as Europe or Africa.
CONMEBOL
Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol, based in Asunción, Paraguay.
Coordination Circuit
Communication circuit usually composed of two voice- grade telephony channels that facilitate the operational control and supervision of a production.
COPDA
Catalogue of Pre-Designed Areas.
COS
Catalogue of Services. The COS details all HBS Services and Facilities at the IBC and at the venues, as well as satellite distribution and general booking information.
CRS
Central Results System.
CSA
Common Service Area (at the SMC).
CSC
Commentary Switching Centre. Controls and patches all national and international commentary and coordination audio circuits. The CSC is adjacent to the Master Control Room at the IBC.
CSF
Clean Extended Stadium Feed. Clean (e.g. without graphics) version of the BIF/ESF.
CU
Commentary Unit. A box to which commentators connect their microphones and headphones to feed/ receive audio circuits to/from their home studio.

D

DA
Distribution Amplifier.
dB
Decibel. A unit used to express relative difference in power or intensity, usually between two acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two levels.
DC
Direct Current.
Digital
A method of producing, broadcasting and receiving TV signals using digital technology to convert sound and pictures into a series of digits in much the same way as a PC stores data.
Doubleheader
Matches 33-48, whereby the final two matches in each group are played simultaneously.
Downlink
Segment of a satellite transmission from the satellite to a receiving dish.
DP
Domestic Power.
Draw
An event held for the qualifying (by geographic location) and the final tournament (event) groups of the FIFA World Cup™. In the Final Draw, the strongest teams are seeded first in each group, to prevent them from competing against one another in the first rounds of the event. Draw ceremonies are fundamentally important to the tournament and attract extensive media coverage, including television.
Dub
The duplication of an electronic recording.
DVTR
Digital Video Tape Recorder.
DWDM
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex. An optical technology used to increase bandwidth over existing fibre optic backbones.

E

EBIF Show
The Extended Basic International Feed Show, available only at the IBC, provides MRLs with extended match coverage including the period before and after the Basic International Feed. This starts 40 minutes before kick-off and ends 20 minutes after the final whistle.
EDL
Edit Decision List.
Emblem
A graphic symbol specific to a sports event or a sports federation.
ENG
Electronic News Gathering. Sometimes referred to as a TV crew.
ENG/Positions Platform
Platform dedicated to unilateral ENG (or live) cameras. Exact location of ENG platforms in stands varies according to the venues. Positions are labelled and access is subject to having a special accreditation device. ENG positions are supervised by Broadcast Liaison Officers (BLOs).
ESF
Extended Stadium Feed. A feed available to MRLs to offer added flexibility. This feed now incorporates the former BIF and is considered the basic feed.
Event
The 64 matches involving the 32 qualified national teams who will compete for the FIFA World Cup Trophy at the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™.

F

FAQ
Frequently Asked Question(s).
FBST
FIFA Broadcaster Servicing Team.
FCC
FIFA Confederations Cup. The FCC, like the FIFA World Cup™, is played once every four years. The next edition is scheduled to be played at four venues in Russia during June 2017.
Feed
TV or radio programme transmitted, or fed, to MRLs.
FIFA
Fédération Internationale de Football Association, the world governing body of association football, with headquarters in Zurich, Switzerland.
FIFA Digital Archive
A web-based graphics platform which includes the various event marks, trophies, mascots, official music and branding guidelines.
FIFA MAX Server
A dedicated footage library where images are uploaded and logged for MRLs to use in their own programming.
FIFA Media Channel
A web-based information platform from which all media can download important information on the Other FIFA Events and the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil™.
FIFA On-Air Graphics
A graphics website that includes TV graphics to be incorporated by the MRLs for their individual transmissions.
FIFA TV Extranet
A web-based information platform from which MRLs can download important information relating to their broadcasts of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™.
FIFA TV Feature Crews
FIFA TV Feature Crews will travel throughout Russia gathering additional feature footage of both the host country and of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™.
FIFA TV Team Crews
One ENG crew will be assigned for each Participating Member Association (PMA) to collect material specific to that team.
FIFA World Cup™ Update
A concise review of the day’s leading FIFA World Cup™ stories.
Final
The last match of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ which will determine the overall competition champion. The Final wll be played at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow in July 2018.
Final Draw
The Final Draw will determine the groups for the first round of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™. It is anticipated that it will take place in December 2017 in Russia.
Flash Interview
Brief interviews of players or coaches done either at half-time or at the end of the match.
FMO
FIFA Media Officer.
FOP
Field of Play.
Frequency
The number of cycles per second of wave signal. Measured in Hertz (Hz) or kiloHertz (kHz) or Megahertz (MHz).

G

Gfx
Graphic effects.
GMT (see UTC)
Greenwich Mean Time.
GNS
Ground and Neutral Separated.

H

HB
Host Broadcaster. The entity appointed by FIFA to produce, and procure the worldwide distribution to MRLs of the feeds in accordance with FIFA’s requirements. For the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, FIFA has appointed HBS as Host Broadcaster.
HBS
Host Broadcast Services. The dedicated host broadcast organisation of the 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018 FIFA World Cups™ and the FIFA Confederations Cup 2005, 2009, 2013 and 2017 (and FIFA’s host broadcasting consultant for all Other FIFA Events). HBS is wholly owned by Infront Sports & Media, based in Zug, Switzerland.
HD/HDTV
High Definition Television. High-resolution digital television (DTV). HBS provided all 64 matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil™ in Widescreen 16/9 HDTV digital format.
Host Cities
The 11 cities designated to host matches during the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™. The cities are: Kaliningrad, Kazan, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, Saransk, Sochi, Saint Petersburg, Volgograd and Yekaterinburg.
HVAC
Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning.

I

IBC
International Broadcast Centre. The centre of the FIFA World Cup™ broadcast operations.
IBCC
International Broadcast Coordination Centre. The Broadcast Coordination Centre for FIFA events other than the FIFA World Cup™.
IF
International Feed.
Injection Point
Technical facility that allows MRLs to playback and send recorded footage.
IRS
International Radio Signal.
ISDN
Integrated Switched Digital Network. A telephone- like digital technology allowing better audio quality for transmission and a number of implementation types allowing digital data transfer between 64 kbps (DSO) and 274.1 Mbps (DS4/T4).
Isolated Feeds
Individual feeds made available to MRLs from cameras used for the coverage of matches.

L

LOC
Local Organising Committee of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™.
LSM
Live Slow Motion Machine.

M

MAC
Main Accreditation Centre.
MCIS
Multi-Channel International Soundtrack.
MCR
Master Control Room. Located at the IBC, the MCR is the technical control centre housing all HBS equipment for the switching and distribution of multilateral and unilateral radio and television signals.
MD
Match Day. MD-1 refers to the day before the match.
MDS
Master Delivery Schedule.
Media Conference
A meeting in a room within the stadium to which only media representatives have access and at which they may pose questions to the coaches and/or players present. There is a chairperson for the meeting, who will sit up on a stage with the coach/players, while the journalists will have chairs facing them. Behind the journalists will be a second, raised, level for TV cameras.
Media Tribune
Part of the grandstand or other stand in the stadium specifically reserved for media such as written press, photographers, TV and radio commentators, observers. Accessible only with accreditation and SADs.
Member Association
The association governing football in each territory, affiliated to a confederation and to FIFA. Each member association organises its own domestic club competitions.
MNO
Mobile Network Operator.
MPC
Main Press Centre.
MRL
Media Rights Licensee. An organisation which has been granted certain media rights to a relevant FIFA event in a particular territory or territories.
Multi-Feeds
Feeds made available to MRLs (according to their respective MRL rights contracts) in addition to the BIF/ ESF. Formerly known as Super Feeds or Supplementary Feeds.
Multilateral
One or more feeds and/or services provided and/or coordinated by HBS for the collective benefit of all the MRLs or a group of broadcasters according to their rights contract with FIFA.
Multilateral Signal
Television or radio signal produced at the venue by the Host Broadcaster and distributed to MRLs.
MZ
Mixed Zone (MZ). An interview area at the venue where players and general media ‘mix’ to conduct some of the post-match interviews. Located in general between the players’ dressing rooms and stadium exit.

N

NLE
Non-Linear Editing.

O

OB Van
Outside Broadcast Van. Mobile production studios used to produce coverage of an event.
Observer Seat
A seated position at the venue, generally adjacent to the commentary positions and used by radio and TV accreditation cardholders for observation only. A Supplementary Access Device (SAD) must be obtained from the venue Broadcast Information Office to access this facility. This service is subject to arbitration.
OFC
Oceania Football Confederation, with headquarters in Auckland, New Zealand.
OFE
Other FIFA Events, which are all the FIFA events except the FIFA World Cup™.
Off-Tube Commentary Booth
An equipped commentary position installed at the IBC for non-venue commentary of a match.
Opening Match
The first match of the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™. The first game of the competition will be played in Moscow on 8 June 2018.

P

PA
Public Address.
Permanent Highlights Feed
Feed starting ten minutes prior to kick-off and offering highlights produced and made available at the IBC on a specific channel. These highlights are updated after every significant action of play and replayed in a loop.
PlayerCam Feed
Feed offering dedicated coverage of individual players from Team A and Team B. Feeds are independently directed with three players per team covered in 15 minutes intervals per half.
PMA
Participating Member Association.
Post Production Centre/Server
Produces all programme material for the pre- and post- match period. Non-linear work/editing stations access content stored on the server, capable of recording the feeds/coverage from the venues, and coverage fed by ENG teams.
Post Unilateral
Bookable service available to MRLs after a match, e.g. in the venue studio or other position.
POV
Point of view.
Preliminary Draw
The Preliminary Draw will determine the continent-specific qualifying groups for the 2018 FIFA World Cup Brazil™.
Presentation Studios
Studios featuring a view of the pitch, available for MRLs to book on a per-match basis.
Press Conference
A meeting in a room within the stadium to which only media representatives have access and at which they may ask questions of the coaches and/or players present. There is a chairperson for the meeting, who will sit up on a stage with the coach/players, while the journalists will have chairs facing them. Behind the journalists will be a second, raised, level for TV cameras.
Promo
Promotional Feature.

Q

QCR
Quality Control Room.

R

Rate Card
See Catalogue of Services (COS).
RF
Radio frequency. Refers to wireless transmission or equipment.
RFP
Request for Proposal.
RIS
Radio International Sound.
RSP
Remote Search Park.
RTV
Radio and Television.
RUB
Russian Ruble. The official currency of Russia.
RX [≠TX]
Reception.

S

SAD
Supplementary Access Device. SADs are required for entry into specific areas and/or unilateral facilities at venues on Match Days, in addition to the Accreditation Card.
Satellite Farm
Area specifically dedicated to satellite dishes.
SDI
Serial Digital Interface is a digitised video format used for broadcast video which transmits digital component signals. There is also a high-definition version of SDI called HD-SDI.
SDTV
Standard Definition TV.
SMC
Stadium Media Centre. A designated area at each stadium with facilities for all sections of the media including work spaces, computer terminals and information and help desks.
SNG
Satellite News Gathering. Portable mobile unit capable of up-linking a signal to a satellite from a remote location. Usually refers to news-gathering vehicles equipped with a satellite dish.
SSM
Super Slow Motion.
Stadiums
The facility/ies in which the tournament games will be played.
Studios
Radio or TV studio leased by MRLs on an exclusive basis to produce a programme. Studios are available equipped or unequipped.

T

TA
Technical Annex. The TA describes the rights, roles and obligations regarding all broadcast operations for the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ between FIFA, the LOC and HBS.
TBCH
Team Base Camp Hotel.
ToIP
Telephony over IP.
TP
Technical Power.
Transponder
A satellite’s own receiver and transmitter.
TVIS
Television International Soundtrack.
TX [≠RX]
Transmission.

U

UEFA
Union des Associations Européennes de Football. The governing body of football on the continent of Europe, UEFA is headquartered in Nyon, Switzerland.
Ultra HD
Ultra HD is a term referring to definitions higher than HD, for instance 4K and 8K.
UM
Ultra Motion.
Unilateral
A feed and/or service provided and/or coordinated by HBS or a feed produced by an individual MRL, for the individual use of the respective MRL.
Unilateral Camera Positions
Unilateral camera positions platforms, which provide space for cabled or hand-held MRL cameras. See also ENG positions/platforms.
Unilateral Flash Interviews
A service available at each venue. Interviews will be conducted in a unilateral flash interview zone, between the pitch and dressing rooms. Each interview area will allow the set-up of up to six unilateral camera positions. Rules will be decided by FIFA.
Uplink
Station transmitter used to send TV signals from the Earth to a satellite.
UPS
Uninterruptible Power Supply. A secondary power supply that provides service in the event that the main AC power degrades or fails.
UTC
Universal Time Coordinated. UTC marks the starting point of each time zone in the world from the Greenwich meridian.

V

VAC
Venue Accreditation Centre. Accreditation Centre in one of the official venues; may also be located in a hotel for the purpose of accrediting special constituencies.
VandA
Video and Audio. Typically refers to a video and audio circuit, for example, between a venue and the IBC.
VAPP
Vehicle Access and Parking Pass. Accreditation Device required for vehicle entry into a venue.
Venue
The 11 official 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ stadiums, plus the IBC.
VIA
Venue Information Assistant.
VOD
Video on Demand.
VoIP
Voice over IP.
VSTH
Venue-Specific Team Hotel.
VTM
Venue Technical Manager. The main contact point for all HBS technical-related problems at venues during the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™.
VTR
Video Tape Recorder.

W

WBM
FIFA World Broadcaster Meeting. Two FIFA World Broadcaster Meetings, WBM1 and WBM2, will be held prior to the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™, between FIFA, HBS and the MRLs.
Widescreen
Improved format that allows viewers to watch images on a wide 16/9 screen (16 arbitrary units wide by 9 units high), which is one-third wider than 4/3 screens.
World Feed
The multilateral satellite transmission of the International Signal.